Transformers are stationary machines that are used for converting power from one power circuit to another without altering the rate of occurrence. They generally function on an AC supply and work on the rule of shared induction.
Transformers are necessary for making sure that a big power grid is able to transmit large amounts of electrical energy over longer distances. Although, being one of the oldest electrical inventions, many people still don’t know much about the different transformers.

1. Power Transformer

The power transformer is the most common type of transformers.

Mostly whenever someone refers to a transformer in the industrial zone they are literally talking about a power transformer. These transformers are used in high voltage transmission networks and usually have power rating ranging from 400 Kv and 200 Kv to 33 Kv. Power transformers are mostly connected to a transmission network to avoid load fluctuations.

Having been designed to ensure maximum efficiency of 100%, they are mostly installed in transmission stations or generating stations. They are also bigger than distribution transformers, but since the voltage produced by these transformers is very high, therefore it can’t be directly circulated to the consumers.

For electric power to be transferred from a power transformer to a residential block, a step down transformer is used to balance the voltage to the preferred level. The power transformer is not always completely loaded and the transmission process can at times take a day to complete.

Two other common types of transformers are classified according to the number of turns in the core and secondary windings and also the stimulated emf, namely:

2. Step Up Transformer

The step up transformer is used to convert a low voltage into high voltage and high current AC into low current AC.
The number of turns in a step-up transformer in the primary winding is less than the turns in a secondary winding. Basically, a step up transformer raises the ratio of secondary voltage as opposed to primary voltage. These transformers are seen in power plants where they are connected to a transformer of the generator attached to a grid.

3. Step Down Transformer

Just like its name step own transformers are the complete opposite of the step up transformers.

The transformer is able to transform high primary voltage into a low voltage while also converting low current into higher current. Since the voltage conversion performed by a step down transformer is parallel to its counterpart, the number of windings is also in a different ratio. That is the number of turns in the secondary windings is less than those in operated by the primary winding.

A step down transformer is mostly seen in circulation networks where it is used to transform high grid voltage to a lower voltage that can be transmitted to homes.